Monday, March 29, 2010

"Home Star" Program to Plug Home Energy Retrofits

(re-published from CNET news, Isaac Savage)


You heard of Cash for Clunkers, get ready for Cash for Caulkers, a proposed multibillion program designed to create jobs and give homeowners lower energy bills.

Representatives from building efficiency advocacy groups on Friday held a “Webinar” to outline the Home Star program–nicknamed Cash for Caulkers–and said that its prospects for becoming a law should be known within several weeks. A Home Star Coalition has been formed, which includes large retailers Home Depot and Lowes, equipment suppliers such as Dow and GE appliances, along with energy-efficiency contractors, labor groups, and environmental advocacy groups.

For homeowners, the proposed legislation provides incentives to weatherize homes, through the the inspection of an energy audit, and upgrade to more efficient lighting or heating and cooling systems. Another part of a comprehensive energy audit is a blower door test, which measures how air tight a home is by measuring air flow at a given air pressure.

It will be structured on two levels; silver and gold – depending on the level of investment made, said Matt Golden, the chair of the EfficiencyFirst advocacy group.

To get up to $2,000 in tax credits for an energy efficiency retrofit, a homeowner needs to do at least two approved improvements and work with contractors that meet certain “basic standards,” said Golden, adding that Home Star is designed to fit with the EPA’s Home Performance EnergyStar standards and state programs.

The gold level involves having a building’s energy “performance” rated by contractors accredited by the Building Performance Institute. The more stringent performance goals, which could reduce a building’s energy consumption of 20 percent, would be eligible for up to $4,000 of tax credits, according to the description on the EfficiencyFirst Web site.

The intent of Home Star is to create jobs in the short term, either through training or creating demand for home efficiency products and services. But given the amount of money being discussed and its standards-based approach, Home Star has the potential to be “transformative” in the building efficiency industry, Golden said. “This is a moment in time where we are going to have a foundation to drive a strong industry,” he said.

President Obama’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board, which includes venture capitalist and green-tech investor John Doerr, has endorsed the plan as it meets economic and environmental goals, Golden noted. There’s also the potential to create demand for green building products. Among some of Home Star Coalition members is Serious Materials, a Silicon Valley company that makes energy-efficiency building products including windows and sheet rock that’s manufactured in a relatively low-polluting way.

Golden cautioned that Home Star is not yet law. But it does have clear support from President Obama, who has touted the benefits of home weatherization many times and called insulation “sexy” during a Home Depot visit last month.

Monday, March 15, 2010

ROI With Infrared

Seeing ROI With Infrared, Even In A Down Economy

by David Doerhoff

The sluggish economy is taking its toll on many areas of industry. Manufacturers are looking for smart, cost-effective ways to help their facilities operate more efficiently and save money without sacrificing product quality and performance.

Infrared (IR) thermography has proven itself to be a valuable tool for predictive maintenance and process monitoring system applications for many industries – even in sub-par economic times.

Infrared thermography is the production of non-contact infrared or heat pictures from which temperature measurements can be made. By detecting anomalies often invisible to the naked eye, thermography allows corrective action to be taken before costly system failures occur. Portable infrared imaging systems scan equipment and structures, then instantly convert the thermal images to visible pictures for quantitative temperature analysis.

Infrared thermography is being used by manufacturers for the predictive maintenance of a wide range of applications, including mechanical systems, electrical systems, and building diagnostics – making it a smart investment for its versatility. Typical mechanical systems monitored in a predictive maintenance infrared program include bearings, motors, pumps, compressors and conveyor idlers. For electrical applications, infrared thermography can detect loose connections, corrosion, and load imbalances.

Manufacturers are seeing favorable ROI with infrared thermography programs as the technology enables them to take corrective action before problems occur – thereby saving money and other resources. Types of savings include: reduced PM inventory because problems are detected early, labor savings by taking immediate corrective action, energy savings – both from making sure that equipment is running optimally and sealing building leaks, decreased downtime, increased production, reduction in waste and scrap parts, quality assurance during the process via real-time process control, and much more. This article provides examples of how IR programs save money, and are justified by their ROI.

Infrared Inspection Economics


During an economic downturn, a knee-jerk reaction in many companies is to cut expenses across the board. When it comes to predictive/preventative maintenance (PPM) activities, the philosophy may be: “We’ve cut production, so the equipment is being used less and we can cut back on PPM.” That’s questionable logic in general, but especially in the case of infrared (IR) inspections, where an immediate payback is possible from increased use of the technology. Even if IR inspections haven’t been part of a PPM program, investing in an IR camera can provide an almost instantaneous ROI.

PPM is like an insurance policy, and insurance companies aren’t known for laying out money needlessly. One of them, CNA Insurance, has made it their business to save their clients (and themselves) a lot of money by making IR inspections an integral part of their services1. CNA performs extensive economic analyses of the savings that can be gained from this activity. A few of its 2008 loss/cost savings estimates appear in Table 1.

InfraredTable

Taking corrective action before outright failures occur saves money in many other ways. These include:

• Reduced inventory of maintenance parts
• Labor cost savings by avoiding serious equipment failures
• Energy savings by optimizing equipment operation, and
sealing building leaks
• Savings from decreased downtime (i.e., increased output)
• Reduced waste and scrap parts by improving
equipment operation
• Increased quality and/or production through
real-time process control
• Safer working conditions (i.e., reduced injuries to
maintenance and operating personnel)

Chemical Manufacturing Switch Gear Example


An IR scan of switchgear in a chemical plant spotted a high temperature on the surface of the connection at the A-phase lead of an air compressor circuit (Figure 1, left view,). This temperature was 420.7°F hotter than the maximum temperature of the surrounding area. Using CNA’s criteria, the thermographer identified this as a Critical fault. If that fault had resulted in an arc flash event, or even ‘just’ started a fire that destroyed the switchgear, the facility could have lost 100% of its operations for a week. That was estimated to be worth about $1million, plus tens of thousands of dollars in direct repair costs. Even without such a catastrophic event, the bad connection was costing the company money in excessive energy consumption for every minute of operation.

Infrared1

While on the subject of arc flash, it should be noted that these events quite frequently have catastrophic results. Each year, arc-flash events in the U.S. cause millions of dollars in equipment damage, ghastly injuries, and deaths. When electrical circuits open due to overheating, the fault current that flows across the resulting air gap forms an electric arc plasma (highly ionized gas). This can result in a bright flash, tremendous heat, a high-pressure blast, vaporized metal, and shrapnel traveling at over 700 miles per hour. The strength of the arc depends on the amount of electrical energy available in the circuit that feeds it. It is not uncommon for arc temperature to exceed 35,000°F, and blast pressure to exceed 3000psi.

Low Cost Hydraulic System Fix


Hydraulic systems are another example of equipment that typically heats up to excessive temperatures before failure. This was the case on a transfer line at a diesel engine manufacturer (Figure 2).

Infrared2

Electricians for the cylinder block line were being called repeatedly to this operation to reset high temperature faults on the hydraulic system. All pressures and flows were found to be within specifications. A predictive maintenance team checked the temperature using an IR camera and found that the power unit was operating near its 117°F fault setting, as shown in Figure 2 (top view). Further analysis revealed that the hydraulic system was slightly undersized for this particular application. Subsequently, another gage station had been added to the machine, which increased the system load. Whenever the ambient temperature went high enough during the summer, the high temperature faults would occur.

While this is a rather simple situation, the costs of solving the problem can range from cheap to expensive, depending on circumstances. Upsizing a hydraulic system that works fine 10 months of the year is expensive. So is the purchase of a new chiller unit for the existing system. A trained thermographer on the maintenance team came up with a simple, ingenious, and low cost solution. The thermographer recalled one of the laws of thermodynamics taught in Level I thermography, that is:

InfraredEQ
The problem was that more energy was stored in the system, indicated by a higher temperature than was desired. So if the energy output rate of the system could be improved, then the temperature would go down. This basically amounted to increasing the heat transfer from the object. One of the easiest and most cost effective ways to do this is by increasing the emissivity of the surface of an object. By simply painting the hydraulic power unit and all its piping flat white, the paint increased emissivity, allowing heat to dissipate better, instead of being trapped inside. For the cost of a few cans of spray paint, the temperature of the system was reduced by about 10°F. This was enough to avoid the expensive alternatives, and provided a nice ROI for their IR camera.

Steam and Condensate Line Troubleshooting


Besides the obvious electrical components, power generation stations have a lot of equipment to worry about. One of these stations in the southwest U.S. started noticing worri-some symptoms on one of its steam turbine generators. The first indication was a decrease in electrical load. The control valves were open more than normal, and there was an increase in steam flow to generate the same load as before the problem was noted. Along with these problems, it became apparent that with the increased flow, all of the turbine pressures had also increased, including the condenser backpressure.

As a first step in troubleshooting the problem, infrared thermography of the crossover piping and two sides of the condenser was taken and analyzed. Figure 3 contains three thermograms showing abnormal heat patterns on parts of the turbine condenser. All indications, measurements, and IR imagery pointed to a steam breach in the lower region of the low-pressure (LP) turbine. Because this problem could lead to serious damage, the unit was taken out of service for further inspection and repairs.

Infrared3

The problem identified was that an expansion joint from the #3 extraction to a feed water heater had failed in the LP turbine, causing steam to impinge on the condenser walls, neck and adjacent piping. The failed expansion joint threw shrapnel throughout the condenser neck which pockmarked several other pipes and components. The loose pieces of metal and large volume of steam at 500°F, in a vessel that normally operates at 110°F, could have caused a serious event to occur. Shrapnel from the expansion joint could have also lodged in the condenser tube bundle and caused tube failures immediately, or in the future, due to the vibration and constant abrasion of the pieces of metal against the tubes.

Subsequently, all the expansion joints affected by the failure of the #3 extraction joint were replaced in an effort to avert any other failures. Maintenance personnel observed that had infrared imagery been taken when the turbine was originally installed, this would have provided baseline data for subsequent IR scans. Baseline images allow for more expeditious troubleshooting, and helps spot problems before they become more severe.

Thus early intervention minimizes damage to equipment that can cost millions of dollars to replace or repair. An important lesson here is that baseline IR scans are a tremendous enhancement to IR camera ROI.

IR Thermography Complements Mechanical Diagnostics


Many companies just scan their electrical equipment with IR cameras because they have other technologies to test motors and other rotating machinery. However, using IR scans on mechanical components improves IR camera ROI by capitalizing on one of the strengths of thermography. It can quickly detect temperature differences on mechanical equipment via non-destructive, non-contact temperature measurements (Figure 4). Using handheld IR cameras, thermography is a very fast and efficient method to scan many pieces of equipment quickly, searching for thermal anomalies. With baseline scan records, trend analysis of motors and bearings provide early warning of impending problems.

Infrared4

While thermography may not always point to the root cause of a problem, it does let you know one exists. Thus, it complements ultrasound, vibration, and electrical circuit analysis tools. These are a potent arsenal in the hands of competent technicians. Intelligent use of these tools has a synergistic effect on the ROI on all of your PPM diagnostic equipment.

Justifying the Cost


If you are not already using IR thermography in your PPM operations, the hardest part about starting a program is justifying the cost of the camera, software and training to do the infrared inspections. Naturally, management wants some idea of the program’s ROI. Gathering the data to provide a reasonable estimate can be time consuming, but knowing where to look can help shorten the process. Start by using online searches to look at other companies’ business cases that will provide examples.

Internally, use your company’s computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), which tracks maintenance inventory, work orders, purchasing, etc. Look for details regarding equipment failures, root causes of the failures, and the cost of the completed repairs. If you’re lucky enough to have access to this information, sort all the equipment failures for one year into mechanical and electrical equipment. Just the data on electrical equipment alone can often cost justify a new infrared program.

For instance, total the cost of all the electrical equipment materials. Don’t include the labor cost for the repair, but just the equipment replacement cost. Use the lowest equipment replacement cost when there is a range of costs. Leave off the labor cost to replace the failed equipment since this will offset the labor cost to fix (for example, loose or improper electrical connections on the equipment before it fails). This repair-before-failure category generally involves “disassemble, clean, and retighten to manufacturers’ specifications”, which are relatively inexpensive activities. On average, about two-thirds of electrical equipment failures are due to loose or improper connections that are easily spotted with IR scans. So, multiply the total electrical equipment replacement costs by two-thirds, because you’re finding those bad connections before the components burn up. You may want to factor this down a little if you assume that some of those bad connections won’t be found.

Now ask the following questions: Is the total cost avoidance enough to justify starting an infrared program? Given this cost avoidance total, will an infrared program pay for itself in 6 months, 1 year, or 2 years? (The ROI question). This calculation is extremely conservative, and most importantly, can be verified by the company’s accountant. Remember, this is only a small part of the ROI picture. We have not even considered lost production, downtime, safety or mechanical equipment costs. Even though these other pieces of the ROI puzzle are usually much greater in numbers and totals, they are also less quantifiable, so they are a potential source of disagreement.

If your company does not track equipment failures and replacement costs, or you need additional cost avoidance numbers, look at what preventive maintenance routines your company currently implements. Two preventive maintenance procedures to look closely at are:

1. Tightening all electrical connections once a year (many electrical
connection problems are actually caused by this approach).

2. Periodically replacing equipment before it fails, even if it does
not have a problem (presumably to avoid unplanned outages).

An IR scan program can eliminate or reduce the cost of these pre-emptive PPM activities. Even if your company runs all equipment to failure, IR scans can provide a “heads up” warning on what equipment has a problem or is about to fail, enabling the company to inventory spare parts for when they’re needed.

For established IR programs, be sure to keep a record of cost avoidance and other cost benefits of the program. These should be reported to management at least yearly, preferably ahead of budgeting activities. The savings garnered through the program provide a running tally of its ROI. These numbers are important anytime, but especially so during a business downturn.

References


1. Gray, Thomas A., “CNA Saves its Clients More Than $80 Million
over 3 Years of IR Surveys from March 2005 through 2008”, in
InfraMation 2008 Proceedings, Volume 9 (ITC 126 A 2008-05-14);
conference of Nov. 3-7, 2008, Reno, NV, available at
http://www.flir.com/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=23398.

2. Hays, Deborah, “In Manufacturing, Little Things Mean a Lot”,
in InfraMation 2008 Proceedings, Volume 9 (ITC 126 A 2008-05-
14); conference of Nov. 3-7, 2008, Reno, NV, available at
http://www.flir.com/WorkArea/show content.aspx?id=23400.

David Doerhoff is a district sales manager for FLIR Systems, the world leader in the design and manufacture of infrared cameras for a wide range of applications, including preventive maintenance, product research and development, process monitoring, building inspection, and more. Mr. Doerhoff, who has more than 19 years’ professional sales experience, is responsible for FLIR’s sales efforts in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa. Prior to joining FLIR three years ago, Mr. Doerhoff worked for Olympus, selling industrial endoscopes and cameras. Mr. Doerhoff obtained his Level l Infrared Thermography Certification from the Infrared Training Center and is a member of the American Society of Home Inspectors. He has presented on infrared camera technology and applications at numerous industry events throughout the United States, including SMRP, ASHI, NPI, and Gas Emissions. Mr. Doerhoff holds a Bachelors degree in Economics and Finance from the University of Missouri. Based out of Kansas City, MO, Mr. Doerhoff may be reached at david.doerhoff@flir.com or 816-884-3021.